By Geoffrey H. Dutton
Whilst spatial info is digitized to be used in geographic info platforms and different software program, information regarding its unique scale, solution and accuracy is usually misplaced. hence, utilizing such details at diversified scales and mixing it with facts from different assets will be tricky. Mapping vector facts at smaller than the unique scale calls for its generalization, that is often dealt with via post-processing in ways in which are just weakly supported via databases. The versions and techniques defined during this publication conquer many such difficulties by means of offering a multi-resolution information illustration that enables retrieval of map information at a hierarchy of scales, in addition to documenting the accuracy of each spatial coordinate.
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Extra info for A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences)
It is one way to enrich map data to make map generalization problems easier to identify, formalize and hopefully solve. But it is only one way, and it is only a start. 2, it may help to describe a context within which it can be interpreted and compared to related approaches. We first present the context in the form of a classification of spatial data models employing three dichotomous categories. 1 summarizes this typology iconically, displaying and describing typical representations of seven of its eight classes.
Location identifiers would be built up using the numerals 1 through 9, rather than 0 through 3 as QTM employs. 3 Prior, Related and Derived Work 35 ery point on Earth was part of both hierarchies, either one or an interleaving of both could be used to generate location codes. ,oo /L Tv, / / \ o. o,,,,,t,oo,oo,,noo,... Fig. 10. Relations between GEM's dual triangular hierarchies Although GEM could accept elevation data for any or all points on a planet, it was realized that even a medium-dense elevation model for a whole one would consume huge amounts of storage, even at the rate of less than one bit per triangular facet theoretically possible, Some portions of a GEM pyramid would always be omitted, and some localities would have fewer levels of encoding (resulting in a smaller number of larger facets) than others.
S. Environmental Protection Agency's EMAP (Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program) effort. S. and its territories), which would have equal area hierarchical sampling units. Statistical considerations (minimizing distance variance between sample points) pointed toward using a basis polyhedron with a large number of facets, and the one selected (a truncated icosahedron, familiar as a soccer bali, and also as the Fullerene carbon molecule) has 32 of them, 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons. 8 shows this shape, its soccer ball variant, and how it is oriented for use in EMAP.
A Hierarchical Coordinate System for Geoprocessing and Cartography (Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences) by Geoffrey H. Dutton