By Biruté M.F. Galdikas, Nancy Erickson Briggs, Lori K. Sheeran, Gary L. Shapiro, Jane Goodall
A few of the papers during this quantity have been first awarded on the 3rd overseas nice Apes of the realm convention, held July 3-6, 1998 in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The editors of this quantity, the 1st in a two-volume sequence, are global popular, having committed such a lot in their lives to the examine of serious apes. The world's preferable primatologists, ethologists, and anthropologists current the newest examine on either captive and free-ranging African nice apes. those scientists, via deep own dedication and sacrifice, have multiplied their wisdom of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas. With forests disappearing, lots of those experiences is not really duplicated. This quantity, and all within the Developments in Primatology publication sequence, objective to expand and deepen the knowledge of this important reason.
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Extra info for African Apes (All Apes Great and Small, Volume 1) (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects)
They demand explanation in terms of evolutionary benefits and constraints, and both provide numerous opportunities for helping us to think about evolutionary processes in fossil hominids. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Our thanks to Brian Hare for drawing our attention to the literature on dogs, to Christopher Boehm, Laurie Godfrey, Jamie Jones, Cheryl Knott, Andy Marshall, Martin Muller, Brian Shea, Andrea Taylor, and Frans de Waal for comments, and to the Institute for Human Origins, University of Arizona, for their February 2000 symposium “First Cousins: Chimpanzees and Human Origins” which provoked this paper.
In a further 14 species of domesticated mammals reviewed by Hemmer (1990), domesticates also have small brains compared to their wild ancestors. We suggest that this brain reduction may have resulted from selection for reduced aggression, as we also propose for bonobos. Although the genetic processes underlying neoteny are not well understood, it is known that selection for tameness can produce change in various correlated features (Coppinger and Schneider, 1995). For example, by selecting wild foxes (Vulpes vulpes) for tameness over 20 generations, Belyaev (1979) produced various dog-like (juvenilized) traits including drooping ears and curly tail.
In the most specific formulation of this idea, 12 R. Wrangham and D. 5 mybp. The absence of gorillas made high-quality foliage more available for proto-bonobos than for chimpanzees. As a result, proto-bonobos experienced a reduced intensity of scramble competition compared to chimpanzees (Wrangham, 2000). Reduced scramble competition allowed more stable parties, which then made several forms of aggression more dangerous and costly, and less beneficial, to the aggressors. This change in the economics of violence led through various social consequences to female-female alliances, concealed ovulation, and reduced individual vulnerability to gang attacks.
African Apes (All Apes Great and Small, Volume 1) (Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects) by Biruté M.F. Galdikas, Nancy Erickson Briggs, Lori K. Sheeran, Gary L. Shapiro, Jane Goodall