An inquiry into naval tactics by John Clerk Eldin PDF

By John Clerk Eldin

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British Library


A privately revealed textual content of the 1st a part of Clerk's 'Essay on naval tactics'.

[Edinburgh, 1782]. [2],62p.,plates ; four°

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1 refer to the first half of the twentieth century. But they refer to populations with quite different levels of mortality and life expectation, some of which can be characterized as 'favored' and others as 'unfavored'. Comparing Gompertz functions in these terms, it appears that the location of the function underwent a peregrination. In unfavored populations, including the insured lives of eighteenth-century England, a first Gompertz function appeared in early adulthood but gave way in mature adulthood to a second function in which the death rate was higher and took less time to double.

The scheme is one of increasing returns, which seems to imply learned behavior, albeit behavior that for a long time was learned slowly. The inference of learned behavior is stronger still when survival curves are compared for populations differing in social characteristics. Slaves in the Roman era had shorter life expectancies than free individuals, and individuals with greater wealth - a feature determined by artifacts excavated with the skeleton - seem to have lived longer. 12 In the aggregate, though not in every individual case, the differentiation is a sign of control over some causes of death, and it raises the question of what was controlled.

There are other directions from which the aging rate might be influenced. Animal experiments suggest that lowering metabolic rate might extend the life span. Fruit flies and fish live longer when their body temperature is lowered, suggesting a mammal model in which hibernation or torpor - for example, a small reduction of body temperature during sleep - might reduce the aging rate. Other sectors of research focus on body chemistry and cells, examining how additions or deletions of hormones influence animal aging and mortality, on means to repair cell damage associated with age, and on the immune system.

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An inquiry into naval tactics by John Clerk Eldin

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