By Bhushan, Vikas
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Longitudinal studies: problems and findings. In Clarke. M. and Clarke. B. ). Mental Deficiency: the Changing Outlook. 3rd edn •• Methuen. London; Free Press. New York Waddington. H. (1957). The Strategy of Genes. Allen and Unwin. London Waddington. H. (1966). Principles of Development and Differentiation. Macmillan. New York Zigler. E. and Valentine. J. ) (1979). Project Head Start: A Legacy of the War on Poverty. Free Press, New York Commentary 37 COMMENTARY J. M. A. Hermanns Clarke and Clarke present an overview of a number of relations that exist between mild retardation and the society in which it is found.
We have to ask ourselves why - and there is one simple answer - critics have yet to find a more useful index of functioning. Psychologists are rightly aware of the limitations in the construction and use of IQ tests. Different tests such as Raven's Matrices and WISC measure different cognitive functions and do not therefore relate highly to each other. In part, this explains the poor predictive validity of "baby" tests which largely measure sensori-motor development with later childhood tests, especially those like the Binet which largely measure verbal functioning.
This is a sensitive area, but clearly the disadvantaged should have the same rights of access to family planning information as their more privileged peers. The inverse care law may, however, again operate because the di sadvantaged are often unwi 11 i ng to seek advice. Large families in poor circumstances, as we have seen. are often unable to provide reasonable contexts for rearing their children. Unwanted and unplanned children reduce the life chances of the whole family. To summarize: (1) There is no doubt that social factors are implicated in the aetiology of subcultural mild retardation, the majority group for which administrative prevalence estimates are available.
Anatomy by Bhushan, Vikas