By David A. Peterson
This ebook provides the 1st systematic typological research of applicatives throughout African, American Indian, and East Asian languages. it's also the 1st to handle their services in discourse, the derivation in their semantic and syntactic homes, and the way and why they've got replaced through the years.
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Additional resources for Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory)
Note, however, that the form of the applicative suYx, -i, remains constant. (3) Kichaga (Bresnan and Moshi 1990: 148–9). a. ’ b. ’ c. ’ d. ’ A similar case is Tukang Besi (Austronesian, Sulawesi): 44 Applicative Constructions (4) Tukang Besi (Donohue 1999: 225–6). a. ’ b. ’ c. ’ d. ’ marked with morphology which diVers from the more general applicative marker -ako seen in (4). So, the one formal marker type and the multiple formal marker type of applicative are not mutually exclusive; the two types can co-occur in a single language.
This pattern is quite consistent with what holds for most applicative constructions, as we will see in the following chapter. Now, it might be argued, alternatively, that object agreement in Lai is always with an animate object, but we will see in what follows that more than just animacy is involved here. If animacy alone were responsible, benefactive objects would agree by virtue of their being animate, and not because of any independent requirement of the applicative marker -piak. The only way of Wnding out whether the applicative constructions have any independent inXuence on object marking is to look at what happens when both the base object and the applicative object are animate.
A-ka-zu? a-ka-zu? l-piak (66) naŒ-ma? kayma? a-n´-zu? ’ (68) *naŒ-ma? a-Ø-zu? ’ 12 One might wonder whether these examples are representative of transitives, given the semantics of the verb. l is as transitive a verb as ‘kill’ or ‘beat’ in Hakha Lai. 26 Applicative Constructions (69) *kay-ma? a-Ø-zu? ’ As shown in these examples, when the benefactive object is either a Wrst or a second person, and the patient is a third person (see (64) and (65)), the -piak construction may be used as expected.
Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory) by David A. Peterson