By Bruce W. Conolly
Covers the hand surgical innovations the non-specialist must practice. The publication takes a 'one-stop' strategy, every one representation is followed through a close descriptive caption, removing the necessity for flipping backward and forward notwithstanding the textual content among illustrations and outlines. The book's step by step illustrations are through a unmarried clinical artist, assuring top of the range uniformity all through. beneficial properties: * sensible one-stop source demonstrates universal hand surgical procedure methods * high quality step by step illustrations * designated descriptive caption helps each one representation
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Review questions 1. What disease entities are known to be associated with taste disturbances? 2. Why is saliva crucial to the sensation of taste? 3. Describe the functional morphology of a taste bud. 4. What are the probable neurological pathways for the sensation of taste from the tongue tip to the central nervous system? 30 Taste References 1 2 . HENKIN, R . I . , SCHECHTER, P . J . , RAFF, M . S . , BRONZERT, 1. i. F. (1971) Steroids, Hormones and Brain Function. Los Angeles: University of California Press 2.
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is frequently accompanied by a decreased gag reflex, weakness of cervical or facial muscles and often a speech disorder. It is a common cause of dysphagia and, if it progresses to pharyngeal paralysis, it may cause sensory changes secondary to painful lesions of the mouth and tongue. Such diseases include scarlet fever, mumps, viral infections, monilia, peritonsillar abscess, carcinoma and syphilis. Pharyngeal paralysis often results from poliomyelitis, multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular accident (stroke) involving the brain stem or diphtheria affecting the IXth and Xth nerves.
The infantile (or tooth apart) swallow is also characterized by an active tongue thrust. Retention of this immature mode of deglutition may comprise an aetiologic factor of anterior malocclusions, especially the anterior open bite. Tooth apart swallows are, however, normal in adults when fluids or soft foods are consumed. Thus during the process of deglutition the consistency of the food bolus determines whether the teeth will come into occlusion. Central control Although deglutition is reflexly triggered from the periphery, the sequence and timing of the component movements is controlled by the central nervous system.
Atlas of Hand Surgery by Bruce W. Conolly