By Gene E. Likens (auth.)
The target of this 3rd variation is to replace long term information offered in previous versions and to generate new syntheses and conclusions in regards to the biogeochemistry of the Hubbard Brook Valley in keeping with those longer-term facts. there were many adjustments, revelations, and fascinating new insights generated from the longer info files. for instance, the effect of acid rain peaked through the interval of the HBES and is now declining. The longer-term information additionally posed demanding situations in that very marked adjustments in fluxes happened in a few elements, corresponding to hydrogen ion and sulfate deposition, calcium and nitrate export in circulate water and biomass accumulation, through the nearly 50 years of checklist. hence, featuring “mean” or “average” stipulations for lots of elements for one of these lengthy interval, while swap used to be so sought after, are not making feel. often times, pentads or a long time of time are in comparison to exhibit those adjustments in a extra smoothed and rational approach for this lengthy interval. every now and then, a unmarried interval, usually during times of swift swap, comparable to acidification, is used to demonstrate the most point(s). And, for a few components a special mass stability method, permitting the calculation of the internet environment Flux (NEF), is proven on an annual foundation in the course of the study.
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2007). Total (above- and belowground) live-tree biomass (~245 mg/ha for trees ≥10 cm dbh) throughout the Hubbard Brook Valley did not change significantly between 1995 and 2005 (van Doorn et al. 2011). 89 Mg/ha-year during 1987–1992 (Likens et al. 1994) and recently has declined even further (Lindenmayer and Likens 2010, p. 123). ) and red maple (Acer rubrum), are common in the experimental watersheds; white pine (Pinus strobus) is rare except in the valley floor, and red oak (Quercus rubra), basswood (Tilia americana), and elm (Ulmus americana) are absent from the HBEF.
The Water-Year Selection of a suitable water-year is a primary consideration for analysis of interannual hydrology. The ideal water-year begins and ends for a period that shows little interannual change in watershed water storage, often a point in the year of lowest water storage. , soil water and snow). In watersheds of the HBEF, streamflow is largely dependent on (1) precipitation, (2) the capacity for water storage in the soil and thereby the amount of water stored in the soil at any time, and (3) the amount of water stored in the snowpack.
In fact, annual mass balances, particularly since 1982 show small net ecosystem losses, and analyses do not suggest significant “hidden” losses (see Chap. 4 and 6). Finally, if there were significant inputs or outputs of groundwater, then streamwater chemistry should change during low-flow periods. Such changes are not observed in the long-term record (see Chap. 3). , Dominski 1971; Mulder 1980; Likens and Buso 2006). Recently, Zimmer et al. (2012) looked more closely at ephemeral and intermittent channels, and groundwater seeps in headwaters of W3 and suggested that the high levels of solutes found there might indicate water moving through deep glacial till or fractured bedrock.
Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem by Gene E. Likens (auth.)