Biology of the Leaf Miners - download pdf or read online

By Prof. E. Martin Hering (auth.)

ISBN-10: 9401571961

ISBN-13: 9789401571968

ISBN-10: 9401571988

ISBN-13: 9789401571982

The improvement of specialized feeding conduct in the course of the process time by way of people is paralleled within the majority of animals, specifically have built precise peculiarities, and bug larvae which typically are really attribute of the species involved. this is applicable particularly to phytophagous insect larvae, and an individual with the needful adventure can say with a good measure of sure bet which insect larva is answerable for any harm to be came across on a plant. It leaves in the back of a distinct "feeding trend" that may be in comparison to a "visiting card" on which the genus and species are marked in runic characters. Whoever has realized to learn the runes can easily ascertain who has been feeding at the affected spot, completely at the easy of the "visiting card" left in the back of. From the recognized components - the identify of the plant and the kind of feeding patter- and after a few research of a number of the sorts of plant infestation, either the genus and species of the larva generating the feeding development might be labored out effortlessly. the significance of "feeding development research" has now some distance outstripped the successes to be acquired by means of common gathering. formerly, while wishing to record the species of bugs found in any given locality they have been stuck with the web, via sugaring and different equipment. This continually led to a truly faulty "list" of the bugs in reality latest within the locality concerned.

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No answer can be given to the question whether permanent or temporary mining should be considered the more primitive stage in the development of this special type of phytophagous living. Both forms of feeding have arisen polyphyletically and it may be broadly assumed that both developed from optional miners. 32 5. CHANGING FROM ONE MINE TO ANOTHER The great majority of miners consist of very small species; in such cases the substance of a single leaf is usually sufficient to provide all the food necessary for the larva from the time it hatches from the egg until it pupates.

A co1eopterous mine is indictated if a spot of shiny secretion covers the egg at the commencement of the mine. Mines of Buprestidae can be recognised in this way. 2. Globular cocoons inside the mine are usually formed by Coleoptera, but are also found among Lepidoptera. 3. Carpetting of the mine cavity with silk only occurs in Coleoptera prior to pupation; there is therefore no silk or web during the larval stages. 53 7. LIFE HISTORY OF THE MINING INSECT a) 0 vip 0 sit ion Mter fertilization, the female lays its eggs (although ovipositing frequently takes place in Tenthredinidae and sometimes in other Orders without previous fertilization, in other words parthenogenesis occurs).

External breathing pores, known as spiracles are absent from Tendipedidae, which are apneustic and breathe through their skin. The sheaths of the wings and antennae are clearly visible on the pupa (Fig. 32, right) and on each side of the first thoracic segment there Fig. 34. Larva of Hydrellia. Pointed posterior spiracles, mouth hooks with only one tooth. Fig. 35. Posterior spiracular process of Liriomyza mercurialis Hering, spiracles arranged in an arc. Fig. 36. Hendel. "Two-horned" anterior spiracular processes of Agromyza lathyri Fig.

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Biology of the Leaf Miners by Prof. E. Martin Hering (auth.)


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