By Peter Macinnis
Starting in China in 70 B.C., this interesting background chronicles the improvement of rockets from gunpowder-filled sticks of bamboo to interstellar advertisement satellites. particularly, the tale of yank Robert Goddard is traced as he led the gang of 20th-century area fans who learned that rockets would supply the most important to early house exploration. additionally integrated are the contributions to rocket evolution of rugged ny stuntmen, rangy Australian kangaroos, and a nudist New Zealand physicist.
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Starting in China in 70 B. C. , this interesting historical past chronicles the improvement of rockets from gunpowder-filled sticks of bamboo to interstellar advertisement satellites. particularly, the tale of yankee Robert Goddard is traced as he led the gang of 20th-century house lovers who learned that rockets would offer the most important to early house exploration.
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Additional resources for Rockets: Sulfur, Sputnik and Scramjets
If that was his hope, Kraft was foolish to have offered an enigmatic hint: that phosphorus derived from ‘somewhat that belonged to the body of man’. Brandt (and Kraft) had been using large amounts of human urine. When this is boiled and evaporated, urea reacts with a phosphate salt to produce phosphorus vapour, which can be condensed under water to form white phosphorus. Boyle and his assistant Ambrose Godfrey deduced that urine was the starting point, though we are not told how they came to that conclusion.
The use of human waste was a long-lasting alchemical tradition, and the excerpt above from the Canterbury Tales offers the first reference in English to the chemicals used by the alchemist. If you try reading it out loud, you may be able to make out the sense of it, but here is a literal translation to help you along: Unslaked lime [quicklime], chalk and white of an egg, Diverse powders, ashes, dung, urine and clay, Wax-sealed bags, saltpetre, vitriol, Assorted fires made of wood and coal, Salt of tartar, alkali and prepared [common] salt Keep this list in mind in what follows.
This was naturally, perhaps rightly, attributed to the dishonesty of the contractors and the venality of the commissaries. Yet an exhaustive experiment at Rockets Text Pages 28/5/03 12:18 PM Page 32 32 | ROCKETS Bombay in 1808, with the powder used on each side in the action between the San Fiorenzo and the Piedmontaise, proved that the English powder was better . . It is hard at least to believe that all of the dishonest contractors were on one side. And this suggests, again, that English powder may have owed its quality to the purity of Bengal saltpetre, of which England had a complete and permanent monopoly.
Rockets: Sulfur, Sputnik and Scramjets by Peter Macinnis