By John Keegan
With an identical erudition, discernment, and crisp prose that made his A background of war a global bestseller, Keegan surveys the literature of global warfare II, selecting the works he unearths most vital and illuminating whereas analyzing the occasionally savage controversies raised through generations of the war's historians.
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With an identical erudition, discernment, and crisp prose that made his A heritage of conflict a world bestseller, Keegan surveys the literature of global struggle II, determining the works he reveals most crucial and illuminating whereas reading the occasionally savage controversies raised by means of generations of the war's historians.
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Extra resources for The Battle For History: Re-Fighting World War Two
Civilian policymakers ultimately make the decisions, and they are not affected by the dynamics of military cultures or interservice rivalries. Accounts featuring organizational culture amply demonstrate that the preconceived assumptions and ideas regarding the appropriate way to fight that permeate military organizations affect the doctrine these organizations develop to wage wars and even how militaries choose to fight in the early stages of armed conflicts. Still, cultural arguments are plagued by two significant weaknesses.
Specifically, civilian victimization inflicts costs on noncombatants to coerce a government or rebel organization to cease fighting. Traditionally, scholars have equated inflicting pain on noncombatants with punishment. Punishment is a coercive strategy that erodes the adversary’s will to fight, either by convincing the government that the civilian costs outweigh the benefits of resistance, or by turning the civilians themselves against the war and hoping that they will pressure the government to end the war.
S. 41 In short, civilian victimization is a government-sanctioned policy in wartime that targets enemy civilians intentionally or fails to discriminate between combatants and noncombatants. Belligerents need not put a gun to their victims’ heads for a wartime strategy to constitute civilian victimization. Widespread noncombatant suffering and mortality can be generated by systematic devastation of the environment, cutting off supplies of food, or forced relocation. Next, I elaborate the various theories that have been offered to explain civilian victimization, before turning to my own desperation and annexation arguments and a discussion of the methods and cases I use to test these competing theories.
The Battle For History: Re-Fighting World War Two by John Keegan